Access Control

This topic gives basic information about using compartmentsA collection of related resources that can be accessed only by certain groups that have been given permission by an administrator in your organization. and IAM policiesA document in the IAM that specifies who has what type of access to your resources. It is used in different ways: to mean an individual statement written in the policy language; to mean a collection of statements in a single, named "policy" document (which has an Oracle Cloud ID (OCID) assigned to it); and to mean the overall body of policies your organization uses to control access to resources. to control access to your cloud network.

Compartments and Your Cloud Network

Anytime you create a cloud resource such as a virtual cloud network (VCN) or compute instance, you must specify which IAM compartment you want the resource in. A compartment is a collection of related resources that can be accessed only by certain groups that have been given permission by an administrator in your organization. The administrator will create compartments and corresponding IAM policies to control which users in your organization have access to which compartments. Ultimately, the goal is to ensure that each person has access to only the resources they need.

If your company is starting to try out Oracle Cloud Infrastructure, only a few people need to create and manage the VCN and its components, launch instances into the VCN, and attach block storage volumes to those instances. Those few people need access to all these resources, so all those resources could be in the same compartment.

In an enterprise production environment with a VCN, your company will want to use multiple compartments to make it easier to control access to certain types of resources. For example, your administrator could create Compartment_A for your VCN and other networking components. The administrator could then create Compartment_B for all the compute instances and block storage volumes that the HR organization uses, and Compartment_C for all the instances and block storage volumes that the Marketing organization uses. The administrator would then create IAM policies that give users only the level of access they need in each compartment. For example, the HR instance administrator is not entitled to modify the existing cloud network. So they would have full permissions for Compartment_B, but limited access to Compartment_A (just what's required to launch instances into the network). If they tried to modify other resources in Compartment_A, the request would be denied.

For more information about compartments and how to control access to your cloud resources, see Setting Up Your Tenancy and Overview of IAM.

IAM Policies for Networking

The simplest approach to granting access to Networking is the policy listed in Let network admins manage a cloud network. It covers the cloud network and all the other Networking components (subnets, security lists, route tables, gateways, and so on). To also give network admins the ability to launch instances (to test network connectivity), see Let users launch instances.

If you're new to policies, see Getting Started with Policies and Common Policies.

For reference material for writing more detailed policies for Networking, see Details for the Core Services.

Individual Resource-Types

If you'd like, you can write policies that focus on individual resource-types (for example, just security lists) instead of the broader virtual-network-family. Be aware that the instance-family resource-type also includes several permissions for VNICs, which reside in a subnet but attach to an instance. For more information, see For instance-family Resource Types and Virtual Network Interface Cards (VNICs).

There's a resource-type called local-peering-gateways that is included within virtual-network-family and includes two other resource-types related to local VCN peering:

  • local-peering-from
  • local-peering-to

The local-peering-gateways resource-type covers all permissions related to local peering gateways (LPGs).

The local-peering-from and local-peering-to resource-types are for granting permission to connect two LPGs and form a peering relationship. For more information, see VCN Peering.

Nuances of Different Verbs

If you'd like, you can write policies that limit the level of access by using a different policy verb ( manage vs. use, and so on). If you do, there are some nuances to understand about the policy verbs for Networking.

Be aware that the inspect verb not only returns general information about the cloud network's components (for example, the name and OCID of a security list, or of a route table). It also includes the contents of the component (for example, the actual rules in the security list, the routes in the route table, and so on).

Also, the following types of abilities are available only with the manage verb, not the use verb:

  • Update (enable/disable) internet-gateways
  • Update security-lists
  • Update route-tables
  • Update dhcp-options
  • Attach a dynamic routing gateway (DRG) to a virtual cloud network (VCN)
  • Create an IPSec connection between a DRG and customer-premises equipment (CPE)

Important: Each VCN has various components that directly affect the behavior of the network (route tables, security lists, DHCP options, Internet Gateway, and so on). When you create one of these components, you establish a relationship between that component and the VCN, which means you must be allowed in a policy to both create the component and manage the VCN itself. However, the ability to update that component (to change the route rules, security list rules, and so on) does NOT require permission to manage the VCN itself, even though changing that component can directly affect the behavior of the network. This discrepancy is designed to give you flexibility in granting least privilege to users, and not require you to grant excessive access to the VCN just so the user can manage other components of the network. Be aware that by giving someone the ability to update a particular type of component, you're implicitly trusting them with controlling the network's behavior.

For more information about policy verbs, see Verbs.